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In some texts, the authors focus not so much on the film process as on its historical and social context. Thus, Z. Alfyorova draws attention to those general civilizational conflicts that were related to Ukraine and Ukrainian culture even in Soviet times. The author examines the artistic culture of Ukraine at the intersection of the influences of economic, political and socio-cultural systems and observes how the "crisis of reality", the "replacement of reality with signs of reality" is provoked both by the influence of "official" Soviet culture and the phenomena of early postmodernism. The author rightly notes that the internal dissidence of a certain circle of Ukrainian artists is reflected in the very style of screen works. However, interesting observations and theoretical generalizations do not always find concrete confirmation in the direct examination of the film process.

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A characteristic feature of French cinematography in the 30s–60s of the 20th century. was his constant connection with the processes taking place in the philosophical environment. Thus, the creativity of the country's leading cinematographers (M. Carnet, J. Renoir, A. René, etc.), who worked in different historical periods and held different aesthetic positions, was stimulated by the concepts of the outstanding European theoretician A. Bergson. The American "counterculture", which was based on the concept of neo-Freudianism, the idea of ​​youth rebellion, was represented by A. Penn's films "The Chase" and "Little Big Man"; M. Nichols "Graduate"; D. Hopper's "Light Rider"; M. Forman - "One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest" etc.

The French "new wave" is directly associated with the work of J.L. Godard - "On the Last Breath"; F. Truffaut - "400 blows"; A. Rene - "Hiroshima, my love." The films of these directors were characterized by improvisation, reportage, which enabled artists to depict the absurdity of the world, the cruel laws of society that oppress the individual. The French invariance of the philosophy of existentialism, which was represented by the concepts of J.-P. Sartre, A. Camus and S. de Beauvoir.

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At the same time, cinematography can by no means be called a "technical" art. Man's primordial need for a figurative understanding of reality gave birth to this mass form of art. Cinema is synthetic in nature, it combines elements of literature, theater, painting, music, choreography. That is why cinematography operates with many expressive possibilities borrowed from other forms of art. At the same time, cinema has its own specific means and techniques, in particular: perspective (angle of view of the film camera), change of plans (general, medium and large), montage, which combines individual frames in a logical sequence and makes it possible to convey the emotional and psychological tension of the episode.

It is not often that film experts turn to such an important field of cinematographic activity as film education. It can be said that the young researchers R. Roslyak and O. Bezruchko entered the territory that until now remained on the margins of film studies. In addition, few researchers were able to master historical facts with the help of archival documentation. R. Roslyak's text reveals to the reader a kind of terra incognita, because during the Soviet era, Ukrainian film education was persistently relegated to the shadows, weakening it also purely organizationally (closure of the film institute, departure of personnel, etc.).

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