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Cinematography has its own genre-genre structure. Unlike other forms of art, the birth date of cinematography can be named absolutely precisely - December 28, 1895. It was on this day in Paris that the brothers O. and L. Lumiere demonstrated their first film program, which contained short documentary sketches: "The exit of workers from factories", "Arrival of the train", etc. The films of the Lumière brothers started the trend towards creating documentary cinema, because in all their pictures a certain immediacy of real reality was recorded.

Despite the crisis of the US economy in the 1930s, the American cinematography of this period experienced the highest rise and prosperity - its "golden age". The viewer wanted to watch movies more than ever. This unexpected, at first glance, situation was explained quite simply. Along with exquisite elitist paintings by J. Ford (1895-1974) "The Grapes of Wrath", "Young Mr. Lincoln", W. Wyler (1902-1981) "The Dead Corner", "The Foxes", O. Wells (1915-1985) " Citizen Kane", which admired for its innovation in the field of drama, in the system of expressive means, stunned with its psychological depth and social significance, commercial genres are becoming widespread: gangster films, horror films, melodramas, musicals, westerns, etc. So, American cinema of the 1930s performed a certain compensatory function, distracting the viewer from life's problems.

The first film studio in Hollywood was founded in 1911. Later, four major film companies were created - "Paramount Pictures" (1912 p.), "Warner Brothers" (1918 p.), "Columbia Pictures" (1919 p.), "Metro Goldwyn Mayer » (1924 p.), whose studios were in Hollywood, as well as several smaller companies. The first film that started the history of Hollywood was the western directed by Cecil B. de Mille, Indian Man.

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At the same time as the Lumiere brothers, J. Méliès began his search in cinema, with whose name the emergence of the feature film phenomenon is associated ("Red Riding Hood", "Blue Beard", "Journey to the Moon", etc.). It is in the bowels of game cinema that a system of genres will begin to form, among which melodrama, comic drama, and adventure film were particularly popular. They existed on the screen both independently and complemented each other.

Ukrainian cinematography was started way back in 1896, more than 125 years ago. The first film was shot by Alfred Fedetsky in Kharkiv in 1896, but it was not like the cinema we are used to. The tape was entitled "Transfer of the Miraculous Icon of the Mother of God from the Kuryaz Monastery to the Kharkiv Pokrovsky Monastery." She (title) immediately describes the plot of this two-minute long work. Thanks to this tape, A. Fedetskyi became the first Ukrainian cameraman of documentary films. A little later in the same year, he organized the first public screening for Ukraine, where he demonstrated three-minute documentary stories. At the same time, screenings of French films started in Lviv.

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