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Despite the crisis of the US economy in the 1930s, the American cinematography of this period experienced the highest rise and prosperity - its "golden age". The viewer wanted to watch movies more than ever. This unexpected, at first glance, situation was explained quite simply. Along with exquisite elitist paintings by J. Ford (1895-1974) "The Grapes of Wrath", "Young Mr. Lincoln", W. Wyler (1902-1981) "The Dead Corner", "The Foxes", O. Wells (1915-1985) " Citizen Kane", which admired for its innovation in the field of drama, in the system of expressive means, stunned with its psychological depth and social significance, commercial genres are becoming widespread: gangster films, horror films, melodramas, musicals, westerns, etc. So, American cinema of the 1930s performed a certain compensatory function, distracting the viewer from life's problems.

However, the worldwide fame of the cinematography of the Soviet period of the 20s of the 20th century was undoubtedly associated with the names of its classics - S. M. Eisenstein (1898–1948), V. I. Pudovkin (1893–1953) and our great compatriot O. P. Dovzhenka. S. M. Eisenstein's creative output was presented not only by his films "Strike", "Battleship "Potemkin", "October", which contributed to the enrichment of the film language and cinematic image in the art of cinema in general, but also by significant theoretical developments in the field of "intellectual cinema", installation problems, etc.

In some texts, the authors focus not so much on the film process as on its historical and social context. Thus, Z. Alfyorova draws attention to those general civilizational conflicts that were related to Ukraine and Ukrainian culture even in Soviet times. The author examines the artistic culture of Ukraine at the intersection of the influences of economic, political and socio-cultural systems and observes how the "crisis of reality", the "replacement of reality with signs of reality" is provoked both by the influence of "official" Soviet culture and the phenomena of early postmodernism. The author rightly notes that the internal dissidence of a certain circle of Ukrainian artists is reflected in the very style of screen works. However, interesting observations and theoretical generalizations do not always find concrete confirmation in the direct examination of the film process.

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At the same time, an extremely interesting phenomenon is forming in the art of cinema - the "star system". In fact, each genre of game cinema had its own "stars". In the melodrama, they were F. Bertini, E. Santos, M. Jacobini (Italy), A. Nilsson (Denmark), V. Kholodna and I. Mozzhukhin (Russia), R. Valentino (USA); in an adventure film - Musidora (France), W. Hart and D. Fairbanks (USA); the success of the comic drama was associated with the name of the great French actor M. Linder, whose creative output had a significant impact on the development of this genre in world cinema in general and on the work of the world comedy classic Charlie Chaplin in particular.

The logical conclusion of Ch. Chaplin's search were the films "The Tramp", "The Kid", "The Pilgrim", "On the Shoulder" and others. The second stage is the flowering of the talent of the film artist, which was convincingly evidenced by the release of his recognized masterpieces - "Lights of the Big City" and "New Times". The first and second stages of Ch. Chaplin's work are united by the image of Charlie the vagabond - a symbol of the director himself. The third stage in the artist's legacy is the stage of high professionalism associated with the films "The Great Dictator", "The King in New York". "Monsieur Verdu" and others.

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