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Chaplin began his career in cinema at the Keystone Film studio. It was headed by the patriarch of American comedy M. Sennett, whose school also went through the famous comedians B. Keaton and G. Lloyd. However, the real "godfather" of American cinema of the beginning of the 20th century. certainly was D. W. Griffith (1875–1948). His films, among which the Birth of a Nation and Intolerance should be especially noted, enriched not only US cinema, but also the entire world cinema with new means of expression, improvement of the specifics of montage (parallel montage). Extremely interesting experiments are taking place at the same time and on the other side of the ocean - in the countries of Eastern Europe, in particular in Russia, where directors Ya. Protazanov, V. Gardin, E. Bauer, whose work was connected with the flourishing of the melodrama genre, are actively working.

That is why, when studying the cinematography of the 1930s, two important aspects should be taken into account: the social one, which prevailed in the cinematography of the Soviet period, German cinema and the cinematography of the United States, and the ontological one, which gave an impetus to the understanding of the processes that took place in the French cinematography of the specified period.

The film "Shadows of Forgotten Ancestors" was conceived as a screen adaptation, but this film had a different fate - to become a manifesto of a whole direction, which was called "poetic cinema". This direction had the greatest publicity in the context of Ukrainian cinematography of the specified period.

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New Ukrainian film art The rapid growth of Ukrainian cinema began relatively recently. Even at the beginning of the 21st century, new Ukrainian films remained invisible to the Ukrainian audience, and there was not even a word about the world one. In recent years, the situation has changed radically. The film is noticed, it regularly appears on the big screens and enters world film festivals. The Law "On State Support of Cinematography in Ukraine", adopted in 2017, unlike its previous version, increased the possibilities of state funding. New mechanisms aimed at supporting cinematography are being implemented: strengthening the protection of copyright and audiovisual rights on the air, financing of television series. Such initiatives should form a balanced system of the film process and everything related to it: film education, film production and film distribution. The law makes it possible to partially recover qualified expenses for the promotion of cinematography at the national level. In this way, film studios and cinemas "on wheels" are supported in small cities of Ukraine.

A kind of alternative to the European cinema of the 20s was American film art, which was characterized by a realistic reflection of reality in the films of E. von Stroheim (1885–1957) - "Greed"; K. Vidora (1894–1982) - "Crowd"; in the tragicomedies of Ch. Chaplin - "Pilgrim", "Parisian Woman", "Gold Rush" and others.

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